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Full text of "Cristofaro's mandolin"

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CRISTOFARO'S 



MANDOLIN 



F. DE CRISTOFAFkO 






TRANSLATED AND KEVISED BY 



. -JRfik * 






PAUL LOSING 



VOLUME I 



1 A 



OLIVER DITSON COMPANY 

THEODORE PRESSER CO, DISTRIBUTORS, 1712 CHESTNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA 






^Madt in U. S. A. 




c ^\STOFA^ ^ 



MANDOLIN 





"© 


F. 


De CRISTOFARO 

« ft 

TRANSLATED AND REVISED BV 
PAUL LOR1NG 

Volume I. 




OLIVER DITSON COMPANY 




Theodore Presser Co., Distributors 


q c i 


1712 Chestnut Street Philadelphia 




Made in U. S. A. 






Copyright MDCCCXUV, by Oliver Dltson Company 
Public Pot'o 1 T\»nr§ Permitted. 





Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/cristofarosmando01cris 



\Mk. 



Rudiments of Music 3 

Of the Mandolin 6 

Of the Compass of the Mandolin 6 

Rule tor Tuning the Mandolin 6 

To Learn how to place the Plectrum (Plume), on the 

Strings 7 

To Learn how to Execute the Tremolo 7 

To Learn the Notes on the Mandolin 8 

Of the Scale 8 

The Intervals io 

Of the Chromatic Scale 12 

Scale and Lessons in C major 13 

Lessons with Quarter Notes 16 

Lessons with Whole, Half and Quarter Notes 16 

Of the Slur and Tie 17 

rst Recreation. Norma 18 

Scale of A minor 20 

Lesson with 1 Half and 2 Quarter Notes „...20 

Of the Extension 21 

2d Recreation. La Petite Guitare 22 

Scale of G major 2% 

Lesson with 2 Quarter Notes Slurred, and 2 Quar- 
ter Notes Detached 24 

Exercise on Eighth Notes 24 

Scale of E minor in 3-4 time 25 

Lesson on Dotted Notes 27 

3d Recreation. Last Rose of Summer 29 

The Appoggiatura or Grace Note 30 

Syncopation and Scale of D major 32 



Triplets 33 

Scale of A major 34 

Exercise in 6-8 time 34 

Scale of G minor 35 

4th Recreation. Septuor d' Ernani 35 

5th Recreation. Schubert's Serenade 37 

Lesson in Quarter Notes and Eighth Notes 39 

Lesson in Detached Eighth Notes " 40 

Of the Gliding of the Plectrum on the Springs 41 

6th Recreation. Valse 43 

7th Recreation. Mazurka 44 

Sixteenth Notes Slurred and Detached 46 

8th Recreation. Polka 47 

9th Recreation. Mazurka 49 

10th Recreation. Minuet 50 

Scale of B minor 5 1 

nth Recreation. Contra Dance 52 

1 2th Recreation. Contra Dance 53 

Lesson on the Sixteenth Notes 53 

Remarks on the Sixteenth Note 57 

Exercises on Repeated Sixteenth Notes 59 

Scale of F sharp minor 61 

Exercise for the Different Strokes of the Plectrum 62 

Of the Dotted Notes 63 

Study of Triplets in Quicker Movements 65 

Study of Triplets with Different Strokes of the Plec- 
trum 67 

Scale of E major 68 

1 3th Recreation. Valse 68 



ADDITIONAL RECUSATIONS 



"Early Morn" 

"Berceuse" (Solo) 

"Merry Princess March". 

"Mazurka" 

"Light Cavalry March" 

"Dance Eccossais" 

"La Modesta" 

"Hermione Mazurka" 

"Medley" 

"Mazurka" 



Pietro Lanciani 

Reber 

Launce Knight 

Meyer Helmund 

Walter Free/and, "Op 1 59" 

Fred. T. Baker 

C. Caramano 

J. C. Macy 



E. Meyer Helmund 



72 

n 

74 
76 

77 
79 
81 
82 

84 
86 



FfG Z 



F/o. I 




Position when seated 




F/gJ 



Position when standing 



ric. f- 




HoM.ng the Mandolin 



FIG. 6 





Pos.tion of the fingers on the four strings. 



FIG. 6 




folding the Plectrum. 



FIG 7 



Position of the Hand 
or loud tones. The 
strings to be struck 
Mth the Plectrum over 
the lower edge of the 
6ound hole 




Position of the Hand, 
for soft tones. The strings 
to be struck with the 
Plectrum over the upper 
edge of the sound hole. 



K 



m 



(K String* 




THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC. 



in the representation of musical sounds — i.e., written music, or 
notation — we use the characters known as Notes, Clefs, Rests, 
and " accidentals " ( or Sharps and Flats ). 

These signs and characters are placed upon a Staff consisting 
of five lines and four spaces. 



If these five lines and the spaces are not sufficient lor 
the extension of the music — i.e., higher or lower tones — we 
theu add more lines to the staff; and these are called ledger 
lines. 



ledger line* above. 



The Staff 

(with ledger tinea added). 



-6th line A i . mmtm M 

. Him €r/£ff? - 



-MHm 
-»dUme- 
- let line 



_3d*pao* 
2d space 
ttteioaee 



The Notes. 

The Notes represent the sounds of the scale, according to their 
position on the Staff. 

Seven principal tones or notes constitute the musical scale. 



i 



Ledger lines below. 



These are represented by the letters C D E F G A B ; or by the 
syllables do re mi fa sol la si. 

The position of the n>tes, as represented by the letters, syllables, 
and characters, aire d mentioned, is as follows : 



DO 



D 

M 



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-&- 



SL 



A 



JSL 



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— B — 



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The Clefs. 

placed at the beginning of the staff determines 



The Clef 

he name and pitch of the notes thereon. There are three different 
oiefs, viz: the G cUfigC =j the F cfc/ JIPj^ ; and the C clef fa —. 



Music for the Mandolin requires only the G clef ; therefore we 
will not here consider the others. 

As the G clef is placed on the second line of the staff 




(observe the curled part on th«s second line), it denotes that G is 
to be placed thereon ; and hence the name and position of the 
other notes are determined. ( See preceding representation of notes 
on the staff.) 

To fix the notes and their positions on the staff firmly in the 
memory, the pupil should write them on music-paper, placing also 
the proper letter and syllable above each. 

The Value or Duration of Notes. 

The characters used to represent musical sounds, and which we 
call Notes, together with theii relative value or duration, are 
indicated in the following diagrams : 



Whole note. 



Half note. 



Quarter note. 



Eighth. 



Sixteenth. 



Thirty-second. 



Sixty-fourth. 



r 



r 



r-t 



b 



1 



The relative value of the notes is best shown by the fo llowing arrangement : 
1 Whole note -^ 



equals 

3 Half notes 

equal 

4 Quarter note* 

equal 
8 Eighth notes 

equal 
16 Sixteenth notes 

equal 
32 Thiuv second notes 

equal 
84 Sixty-fourth notes. 



r 



r 



t 



t — f 



r 



r 







r rrrrrrrr vLu 



mm~ 



I he KestS. is interrupted for a certain length 01 time, as indicated by uie 

Rests are introduced to deuote periods of silence. The music signs called rests, as follows : 



*Tiole rest. 



equal to 



F«lf rest. 



Quarter. 

-t- 



r 



Eighth. 

H- 



t 



Sixteenth. 

— 1— 



Thirty-second. 



8ixty-fouTta. 



It will be seen, in the above, that e?"h note has its correspond- 
ing rest. 

Accidentals. 

A Sharp (#), &H'lat (b), or a Natural (fi), placed before a uote 
afters the tone. In this capacity such signs are called "Acci- 
dentals," and there are five of them as follows : 

The %, which raises the sound a half-tone. 

The b, which lowers the sound a half-tone. 

The \ which restores I he sound to its original pitch. 

The *, or double sharp, which raises the sound of a note a 
whole tone. 

The bb, or double fiat, which lowers the sound of a note a 
whole tone. 

The Signature. 

A sharp or fiat, or a group of either, placed just after the clef 



$ 



S 



sigu g£ indicates the Key in which the music is to be played 

Thus the Signatures by which we determine the Key of a piece of 
music are as follows : 

Example of the S'gnatures of the Major 
and Minor Keys. 

With neither Sharp nor Fiat it Is 




zsi 



C Major or A Minor. 



~zr 



One Sharp. 




i 



Two Sharps. 



* 



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Three Sharps. 



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Four Sharps. 



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Key of G Major or 
E Minor. 



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1 



Key of T) Major or 
B Minor. 



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M 



Key of A Major or 
F# Minor. 



m 



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E Major or 
C 8 Minor. 



-JSL 



Five Sharps. 



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Six Sharps. 



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IJeven Sharps. 



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$ 



One Flat. 



221 



JSC 



B Major or G# Minor. 



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F # Major or D 5 Minor. 

w M * — 



C J( Major or A$ Minor. 



F Major or T) Minor. 



1 



fiB 



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m 



Two Flats. 



B b Major or 
G Minor. 



y 



m 



Three Flats. 

zzz — 



El? Major or 
C Minor. 



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§ 



Four Flats. 



Five Flats. 



BE 



22: 



S 



A P Major or 
F Minor. 



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D b Major or 
B b Minor. 



m 



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% 



& 



Six Flats. 



Seven Flats. 



fcfc 



G b Major or 
E b Minor. 



P& 



SBE 



pzp 



"221 



Cb Major or 
7 Minor. 



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W 



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When a sharp or flat additional, or not belonging to the signa- regular " beats." Thus, in Common Time, (simple or compound) 
ture, is placed before a uote iu any bar or measure of the piece of 



music it affects only the note or similar notes in that measure 
tloP€, according to modern usage. 

Time, or Tempo. 

•Ve measure the movements of a piece of music by t-xent or 



we divide the bar or measure into four beats, each representing 
one quarter-note. This kind of Time is indicated by the figure,- 

j| or the sign g at the commencement : 



Simple Common Time. 



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W=+ 







One, two, three, four, one, two, etc. 



Compound Common Time. 










*4 W¥¥¥¥¥¥W¥¥FF¥?F¥¥¥¥*- 



One, two. three, four, etc. 
In Triple Time we count or beat three to every measure Thus; 

Simnle Triple Time. 



3=^ 



:£3 



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±=: 



\ — i — I — i — h 



at=a=tea i i i b= 



One. two, three, etc. 



Compound Triple Time. 



HEW 






4= 



+ H ■ . ! 1 - ! ! . ! I I - ! I ! I - ! 



One. two three, etc 



Simple (short) or Even Time. 



93 



-I- 



t: 



-t— 



?=> ?—* P- * * I*- 

1 ■ : i i ! i t- 



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One, two, oue, 



two, one. two', etc. 

Compound Even Time. 



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3= 



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1 i- 1 T ■ I i -- ! lit H- 1 ?! 



Simple Triple Time, Short 



IF 



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£ 



iz 



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Compound Triple Time, Short. 



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Dot and Double Dot. 

A dot placed after a note increases its value ( duration ) one half its ow.n length. 

Example. 

Dotted Whole Note. Half. Quarter Eighth. 



Sixteenth. 



Thirty-second. 



&-* 

Equal to 3 Half notes. 



T 



T — 

Equal to 
3 Sixty-fourths. 

-• 0- 

y> y y> 

$ A B 

V P V 



T 



Equal to 3 quarters. 

r r t 



Equal to 3 eighths. 

g : r 



Equal to 
3 sixteenths. 

— 0; 



Equal to 
3 Thirty-seconds. 



B K ^ 

i/ 1 i/ k 1 



• — » — •- 

^ B" B 

R B R 



A second dot adds the value of one half of the first dot. 



equals 



equals 

r r r c 



Example. 



eouals 



i/ k • 



f" 



equals 



^ H B" B* 
• B ^ B^ 



-0-L- 

5 



equals 



w P E n 

^ b 



The dot or double dots placed after a rest has the same effect as when placed after a note. 



* i 



The Triplet and the Sextolet. 

A group of three notes is calle 1 a triplet, aud is to be played 
in the time of two notes of the same kind. 



Triplets. 



t±f 



The sextolet or group of six notes is to be played in the time of 
fonr ;otes of the same kind. 



Sextolets. 



tr 



The figure 8 or e placed above the groups indicate the division, 
or inanuer in which they should be played — as described above. 

Signs and Marks of Expression. 

Dal Segno, or $•', signifies from the Sign. 

Da Capo, or D. C, means from the beginning. 

The Pause, or *, indicates that the note is to be kept down at 
pleasure. 

The Slur (^n) unites several notes with the same stroke of the 
Plectrum. 

Piano, or p, softly. Pianissimo, or pp, very softly. 

Mezzo-forte, or mf moderately loud. 

Porte, or f, loud. Fortissimo, or ff t very loud. 

Crescendo, (-=rr) to increase the sound. 

Diminuendo, (; — ) to decrease the sound. 

Trem,olo {*,+—+ — ) in a tremulous manner. 

The other less important signs, and also the abbreviations, 
terms of expression, and the different movements, will be learned 
as the study of the Method progresses. 

The Mandolin. 



Position of the body. 

To ensure a graceful position and facility of execntion, preserve 
an erect position with the head thrown slightly forward. Stand 
or sit directly opposite the music, so as to be able to read it 
readily. 

Manner of Holding the Mandolin. 

The neck or handle of the instrument should rest in the palm of 
the leit hand and be supported by the first finger, which should be 
placed between the first and second frets. ( The frets are the 
small strips which cross the neck.) The thumb is used to steady 
the handle, and should easily slide up or down, allowing freedom 
to the fingers. The inner side of the hand should be a little dis- 
tance from the handle, so that the fingers may fall perpendicularly 
on the strings. ( Fig. 4.) 

The Plectrum and Right Hand. 

Hold the plectrum between the thumb and first finger of the 
right hand. (Fig. 5.) The hand should be so curved that a part 
of it is held over the strings. The fingers should be pressed 
together and kept beneath the thumb and first finger, the little 
finger resting on the top of the instrument between the sound-hole 
and the bridge. ( Fig. 6.) Shake or agitate the hand slightly, 
as the movement may require. In order to give freedom and 
flexibility to the wrist, the fore-arm must rest on the edge of the 
instrument in such a manner as will allow ease of motion. ( Fig. 6.) 

In order to produce forte souuds, or loudness of tone, hold the 
plectrum firmly ; to produce softer tones (piano ) hold the plec- 
trum lightly, letting it touch the strings above the hole. ( Fig 7.) 

Movement of the Fingers of the Left Hand. 



The Mandolin is tuned by perfect fifths, in the same manner as 
the violin. The violin, however, has but four strings, while the 
Mandolin has eight. These eight strings are placed by twos, or 
in pairs, the two strings being tuned in unison. The Mandolin is 
played by picking the strings with a small piece of bone, wood, a 
quill, or a bit of ivory. This is called a plectrum. ( See Fig. 1.) 
The plectrum should be half an inch wide at the upper or larger 
end, and should diminish to a flexible point at the other. 

Position. 

The performer may sit or stand while playing the Mandolin- 
If sitting, he must place the instrument on the right thigh and 
against the abdomen. ( Fig. 2.) If standing, ht should press it 
against the lower part of the chest. (Fig. 3.) 

Compass of the Mandolin. 

The following scale shows the compass of each pair of strings. 



The fingers of the left hand should be separated and curved so 
that they may fall with grace and facility upon the strings, and 
with equal ease and promptness spring up from them. The fingers 
used somewhat after the manner of small hammers, ( as in piano- 
forte playing,) should move from the knuckle or third joint, and be 
independent of the palm of the hand as well as of the wrist. The 
fingers must rise and fall with ease and equality. The pressure of 
these fingers upon the strings must be firm and even. ( Fig 8.) 

A good position of the fingers is of the greatest importance. 
The examples and illustrations already given shonld be sufficient, 
for the guidance of the pupil in acquiring correct position. Yet 
the teacher should use the utmost care in this important rudiment, 
and not allow the pupil to acquire habits that might seriously 
affect the development of a naturally good talent. 



i 



-e~ •&- 



•0--BL 






-gr 



4th pair. 



T>K>-*&- 



TP-^ 



•gr 



3d pair. 



2d pair. 



1st pair. 



"The ma'ndolin is tuned in perfect fifths, thus 



Tuning. 



Example. 



Pii 



o 

4th pair. 



13 — 

D 

Sd pair. 



131 



3d pair. 



131 



1st pair. 



ompass. These two notes show the extension which the modern mandolin reaches — B and C. 



Tune the second pair of strinyra in unisou with an A inning-fork, 

-9- 

• the A above middle C on the piano ffa—B— Then tune the third 



strings to D 



which will lie an octave lower than the 



same note made by pressing the A strings at the fifth fret. Tune 
the G %U ( fourth strings) an octave lower than the tone 



made by pressing the D strings on the fifth fret. And lastly tune 



the E's (First strings)^ in unison with the tone made by 

pressing the A strings on the seventh fret. 

How to Place the Plectrum on the Strings. 

Place the plectrum on the fourth strings, (G), resting it lightly 



and perpendicularly upon them, between the hole and the bridge 
The teacher should himself assist the pupil in these first attempts 
at placing the plectrum. 

Unite the fingers in a rounded or curved position on the plec- 
trum. The little finger should rest lightly on the instrument ( See 
Plectrum), so that the hand may move freely. 

The upper part of the arm should not move. The fore-arm 
should rest upon the edge of the instrument. 

When the pupil has thoroughly learned how to hold the plec- 
trum, he should commence the stroke-practice — up and down — 
gradually increasing in rapidity until he has attained a very quick 
movement. This is called the tremolo movement, and should be 
practiced on all four sets of strings. 

The tremolo must always begin with a downward stroke of the 
plectrum. 



rz: 




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fr?> 




& 












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O 






%f 

72" 

4th 


3d 


2d 


1st 


1st 


2d 


3d 


72* 

4th 



Lesson For Tremolo Practice. The ^, or hold, indicates that the note is to be held or contin- 

ued at the discretion of the player. Usually the hold should not 
In some lessons given for Mandolin practice, two signs are used, exceed, iu duration, the twofold value of the note or rest over 
fiz : A, or the down stroke; and lj, or up stroke. which it is placed. 

First Exercise. 



The Pupil. 



The Teacher. 



mmm 



-7!7 






79 IZT 

79- -zr 



Htetci=±i*4=t 



79" 




3 -^7" 

The figures placed above or alongside the notes indicate wliat fingers are to be used. 

Second Exercise. 

72: 



Thv: Pupil. 



The Teacher. 



pm 



721 



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791 



791 



72: 




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-gr 



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Lesson for Learning the Notes. 

la this exercise the pupil must not begin the use of a new 
string until he has well learned how to play the preceding one. 
The figures placed over the notes indicate the fingers to be 
4th strings. 




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UBed — viz : 1, first or index finger; 2, second finger; 3, third 
finger; 4, the little finger. 

The sign indicates an " open " string, or a string not pressed 
by the finger. 

The figures placed under the notes show what fret should be used. 

3d strings. 



■ Angers - 



-fingers— \ >. 



Open strings -_- 

2d strings. 



frets a 



-flngers-i- 



^_9im?irlngs_Jg_ fre 7i! 



r 



4 



- open strings 

r 

1st strings 



-?p*Q-? t i |n g* ! 




fingers 1 



frets 2 
2 



* A ♦ 



-0- 



-freti 



After the pupil has repeated this exercise several times, he played in regular order by ascending and descending. The fol- 
shonld play the same notes irregularly, — that is to say, by lowing illustrates the movement : 
skipping some of the intervals, which in the above exercise, were 

1st strings. 
4th strings. M strings. 2d strings. 



m 



o— a— o— »— a — o -=- 



-o— a— o — »- 

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0— »—-—<> 1 — #— o- 

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a 3-8 3 3 

-0---0-#---0-#-t-#-<»- 

■ » — i m — -* — * >- 



2 5 2 3 1 

o m o -#- m n -**- l ■» 



The Scale. 

A regular succession of t >nes and semitones is called a Scale. 

Example. F -se.mto'n. 

Scale of C. F j f ^v & 



Observe that tae semitones (half-tones) occur between the 3d 
and 4th, and the 7th and 8th degrees, ascending or descending. 

semitone semitone 



1221 



-&- 



22: 



22: 



-&r 



J2L 



-&- 



Scale in Whole Notes. 

In passing from one note to another, of the following scale, the 
pupil should avoid any interruption of the movement of the plec- 
trum on the strings. Keep the fore-arm motionless on the edge of 
the instrument and preserve the proper position of the right hand. 
The fingers of the left hand she ud be well curved over the 
strings ; the wrist must b'„ kept rigid, and the action of the angers 
procood solely from the third joint or knuckles. Allow the hand 

Exercise in the Scale of G Major. 

Observe the F $ in the Signature. 
Pupil 



Teacher 



"Z? - 



suflficieut freedom to enable the fingers to rise and fall promptly. 

In playing the following scale, remember to count four to each 
measure. The whole note equals four quarter notes. Beat the 
time with the hand for a bar or two, before playing : Thus, one 
down, one to the left, one to the right, and one up. 

We choose the scale of G for the preliminary scale-practice 
because it is most favorable to the instrument. 




9 



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THE INTERVALS 

An Interval is the distance between one note or tone and another. There may be several degrees in the interval , which 
we reckon as a second, third, Jburth, fifth, sixth, seventh and octave. Intervals are reckoned ascending or descending the scale. 
Thus: 



Second. Second- Third- 



Fourth. 



Fifth . 



XE 



XE 



- ■-*>- 



O-T 



XE 



XE 



-O- 



O ■ 



^=3C 



» m O 



-©- 



O- 



8ixth- 



XI HI 



Seventh. 



,»i° l ° • 



Octave. 






S=at 



'o — o 



^o — o 



In extending the scale, say for another octave, we reckon the ninth, tenth and eleventh: 



$ 



Ninth . 



Tenth . 



Q. 



Eleventh. 



— etc. 



-©- 



Inversions 

"When we place a given note an octave higher or lower, we invert the intervals, thus; 

The Third, a 6th. 



The 9econd becomes a "7th below. 

x* 



xt 



tttr 



The Fourth, a 6th. 



-*th- 



Sttr 



-w- 



~r 



-Tttr 



-M- 



XE 



XE 



^- 



XE 



XE 



6 ti, 



7th 



6th- 



$ 



The Fifth, a 4th 



*th- 



The Sixth, a 3d. 
Q8d 



EE 



The Seventh, a 2d 
p2d 



The Octave, a nnison. 



7 thO 



O- 



XE 



f» r> 



BtliO 



-fltft 



EC 



1 



-&- 



4th *-» 



-O- 



3d 



-O- 



XE 



O O 



10 



EXERCISES ON THE INTERVALS. 



By 

Seconds. 



i 



fe 



4w Strings. 



V T XF 



s'ii'.'Xi'-'iJ 



ill 



St^ Strings. 



^ 



-e- 



=« 



W 



XE 



g rJ 



-©- 



2 3 

2*4 Stri ngs 



-e- o 



3 



xr 



# 



* 



-«- 



i?£ Strings 

* 



Z2I 



IE 



4 

2 



XE 



(g^ — 6 =P 



331 



3 "* 

5=22: 



3 4 



i 



£f=£=# 



^ 



JQ_ 



-o 1 



* 



fa 2 



Z2ZZ& 



XE 



2«?Strings. 
3 4 



^^ 



33: 



w 



# 



3X 



ST4string s 



1 — r 



-o- 



* 



4#£ Strings. 



1 



2Z 



33: 



iJU ' ii ' jjJ Epi 



o ' al f ' o 



# 



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■I i J J i .1 



By 
Thirds. 



* 



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jiUi-uu ' i 



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J0t 



22 



i9 



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«" 3 
1 

1 



^ 



(2) 



-0_ 



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3 4 



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<9- 



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Pi 






2Z 



IE 



r» 



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By 



fc 



J 1 J J | J M J 



1^ 



Fourths.^? 



2Z 



— T 



-<S>- 



«" 3 



_: o 

& 4 



* 



i 



4 

J2 



fe# 



zz: 



zz: 



F^ 



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; j I ' *f ' ^ ^ f f 



3 » 



(.// ^PZtfrt Me note* DAE are found in any passage whatever, and the passage does not exceed Open Strings. 

any of these notes, the rule is to use the 4th finger in preference to the open string, thus:- 



4th Strings. 3T d Strings. 2™ Strings. 

s * a 



TT 
O 







The 4th finger on the open strings (ft) | I | || —^ rJ J — fl 



(2/ When the same note is repeated without a tie^—^ the tremolo must cease after the first note and be resumed at the second. 

57428-86 



11 






$ 



i=m 



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zc 



22 



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By 
Sixths 



5te 



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2? o - 





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F ■' p ' ■' j ' n ■ j ri 






22 



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1 

1 
10- 



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2 T*" 3 



t 



221 



i 



>rFiT,'ir: i r,) gi 



i 



22 



' J'-j'-j'-J'-V'^l 



^ 



By 

Sevenths. 



b i 



P t , ; J I .^|J>MJ^ 



^ 



« 3 ° 2 

: t , f fi r firj 



^2 



22 



-© 



JfipTiff 



^ 



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o <f -9- TT TT 



22 



* 



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4 



By 



P^P 



27. 



Octaves. 



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-• 3 



— . 4 

f 



i 



^ 



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f 



22: 



i^i ' -'i'^ ' i 



22 



4 — 3 



Exercise recapitulating all the Intervals. 



% 



fe 






t 



22 



22 



z:r2? z: 
Zf 3 #" o zr 



-<si- 



27 



-fi> 



27" 



27—3" 
3 



■9- 
1 



— - 3 

77 



*^k^ 



■J J I J 1 I J 



j r 1 j r 1 J r 



m 



22 



Zr-O" 



^— *■ 



23 



^^ r 1 r r 1 r r 1 r r 1 r M r r 1 r j 



£ 



F^ 



-G- 



-&■ 



4 



* 



J J I J J I J j I J 1 1 J 1 U Thf 

• " — ' S* — 1 -A — 1 1 1 



m 



m 



-& 



27 



(l) To play perfect fifths, you must at once place the finger flat on the two different strings. To play diminished fifths you 
must change the fret, although using the same finger. The diminished fifths are indicated by this sign •. 



5742G-86 



12 



ON THE CHROMATIC SCALE. 

lVhen the Scale is composed of Semitones only, whether ascending or descending, it is called a Chromatic Scale. 
To play a Chromatic Scale, we generally us* the sharps in ascending and the flats in descending, as is her* 
shown below. 

Every series of semitones is called a ehr .matic succession. There are two kinds of semitones: the Chrom- 
atic and the Diatonic. 

The Chromatic Semitone exists between two notes of the same name: 



EXAMPLE. 



I m i^j i ' i i i 



EXAMPLE. 



The Diatonic Semitone is placed between two different notes 

^ ^ 1 1 [' 



I j i ' 



Chromatic Scale ascending with sharps. 



-8 — 9- 



1 1 



2 2 3 ,3 



1 ., 1 



2 .,2 



3 3 4 



pr*=j 



ti ;»:♦*»« 



■Q 1 — 1 *— » 



-9 8- 



fjy|5:r*|k 



4#£ Strings. 



-a — i — 1 — 9 — a- 



,fr »' l l* '!< 



3T& Strings. 



' *-•■ 



2V4 Strings. 



1 



i?/ Strings. 



-J 



Chromatic Scale descending: with flats. 



W-^L-l 3 . 3 



I • a i « 2 . 



if ;* 



O . 4 — 8 9- 



■™fc 



E 



• r;* 



^^ 



-#-?♦ 



r*-w 



*— = — 3 — 8 3 — 1 1 



l?t Strings. 



2* d Strings. 



3r? Strings. 



4th Strings 



33E 



4 3 .3 o 



Chromatic Scale descending with sharps. 



i , i 



•H-fr^i, 



4 . 3 . 3 2 . 2 



^ ^tf*^» ; 



-4 9 9- 



l?t Strings. 



2?4> Strings. 



W 



*-—2- 



4 1- 



^7^ Strings. 



■4 9 9- 



4th Strings. 



JL. 



(l) We have shown the Chromatic Scale descending by flats as well as sharps because the fingering is not the same in both cases. 



57429-4C 



13 



SCALE IN C MAJOR. 

No sharps or flats at the Signature. 

All the following scales of Major and Minor keys are written for the first position only. Their compass goes 
as far as B natural above the staff, without exceeding the second octave. 

During the study of the other positions, the scales will be extended. 



Chords In C Major. 






^ 



3Z 



3Z3 



+6 



-*-« 



-*•« 



2: — _: — ^*~z: — ob: 



■& l "0- OJJ olJ *V 



M 



Lento. 



Sp 



3= 



iiiiirirfirri fnii^j i jjuj i ^ i 



Lessons In C major, With Whole and Half-notes. 



Andante. 




THE TEACHER. 



Andante. 

B 1 



XT 



22: 



2. 



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-(9- 



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5. 




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15 




Andante. 



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as 



6. 



d" rii;i±u^ 




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2 



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1$ J J«J J fTTj 



=3= 



5ife 







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A7420-M 



lfi 



Lesson with Quarter-notes, 



All the Quarter notes, when not slurred, must be played tremolo, each succeeding note being accented. 
The tremolo must cease an instant before passing to the following note. 



i 



Andante. 4 



m 



- P m ■ ~! 



1 



i 



i 



E 



P 



£ 



P 



£ 



7. 



WP 



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f 



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Lesson with Whole-notes, Half- notes and Quarter-notes. 



Andante. 



i 



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^^ 



£ 



f 



f 



8. 






Mn 



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47420-66 



17 




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— mm #^-» — 3 i i 






ON THE SLUR. 



When two notes, or even a greater number are accompanied by this sign -—^ they must he played with_ 
out the least interruption of the Tremolo. After playing the first note the fingers of the left hand should 
press the string, and slide up or down to the next note or notes included in the slur. This observation con- 
cerns only notes played on the same string. In slurring on the open strings the plectrum is simply drawn from 
one to the other. 

Exercise for Slurring notes on the open strings. 



§ 



w 



m i f".i 






3 



w 



m 



i 



Lento. 



Lesson in Slurring Quarter-notes. 



£ 



m 



i 



E 



I 



PI 



m 



m 



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9. 



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fe 



v. i J 



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t 



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m 



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i 



^ 



n 



££ 



i 



s 



i¥ 



p 



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p 



$ 



s 



5E=E 



H 



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W 



3Z 



tf 



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k 



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m 



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f 



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iff 



ff 



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^jfV The passage from one string to another must be effected without mooing 1 the wrist (if the right hand in making the plectrum 
fall on the following string; Thus avoiding the wrong accent. 



>742&-e« 



18 



THE TIE. 



"When the sign -— > connects two notes of the same degree op letter, it is called a tie; and the string is 
pressed down until the time-value of both notes is accomplished. 



Lesson in Slurring Quarter-notes and Eighth-notes 



m 



i 



Andante. 



SP 



n . ■ 



mm 



£ 



m 



i 



10. 



The quavers must be 



played tremolo. 



* r , w h 



i 



I W9 



± i±4 



wttrn 



zm 



3^ 



" , m 



m 



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1 



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PS? 



^ 




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t7~ 



v>J- *^ 




RECREATION I. 



Andante sostenuto 



Prom Norma. 




6742Q-86 



19 



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j r rjuir 



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r»r LLLT I 



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• 
I 1 J 1 J [J 1 J 


— ■ —IB —J ■ 


r— »^» f" P # 

— =£= 


a ■ ■ m — 


1 8 


13 13 13 N l 

t ? if i' 


.... . d :..,m .. , j , « 
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i J i J i J i JI 



a J n ' i j n 



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57429-86 



20 



SCALE IN A MINOR. 
Relative of C major. 



rr~g 



a: 



=*=9 



i 



9 1 9 






^ 



£ Mjij, i l ii. 'i ^i iii l r t ri^r*riiii l iii|iii,ij 4 i_i 



Lesson with one Half-note and two Quarter-notes Slurred. 



Moderato. 

4 



22: 



£=i 



i 



£ 



^ 



$ 



11. 



$w t{7^jjj I jJ J JjjJ j 





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I jij ij jjjl-ji JT^LJ^^jjl^ciif 





# 



£ 



^ cto^ 



=1=1 



$EiE£3E* 



^^ 






3 



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57429-88 



21 



Lesson with Two Quarter-notes Slurred. 



12. 



£ 



m 



^ 



J J J E 



SB 



I 



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J aJ J 



^ 






?¥ 



^rt 



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mi 



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in 



f— a 



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THE EXTENSION. 

When the 4-W finger is made to reach a note above the first position, without displacing the hand, the move- 
ment is called extension . The ^irst position finishes at B with the 4$ finger; but it is possible with the same 
finger to reach to C and even to C# with the other fingers still on the strings, and the hand in place. This 
extension is called upper or superior, because the 4w finger ascends one or two degrees. 



fe 



«r* 



-&■ 



-& 



Example of the Extension. 

4.(1) V A 



J i rr i i i i fr i rf i ff i rr i rr i n ^ i iju jijj 



(l) See, for the extension of the 4th finger, tie 28th bar of the fotlovcing Recreation. "La petite jnitare." 



r >7l2»-8« 



22 



m 



RECREATION H. 
'LA PETITE GUITARE." 

Time I. One Quarter- note or two Eighths for each beat or count 
Andante. m ^ — ^ 



l » 



i ? i 



^m 



EE 



*j-f?n ' itu i j77i i im 



m 



«— « 



# 



» i ■ <g=g 



^^ 



g=g 



#-- i 



^ 



^ww 



jjjjijiij 



5 



fpf 



-« — 4— «- 

mam : 



* * 



1 * * 



i 



#— • 



gS 



fei 



pis 



-<9- 



« — * 



1 



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m. 



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9 — 9 9 



t 



m i mr 



^ 



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fe|££ 



£ 



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3=2 



r ^ J77I1JTP 



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ifB 



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g jjg 1 i- ' 3 "* * * 



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K*^r 



^/j ^// ^p Eighth notes which are not slurred or tied must be played staccato. 
[Z) Upper Extension. 



574*»-8« 



23 



SCALE IN G MAJOR, 

F# at the Signature. 



* 



aja_±«: 



E 10 =^° 



T523: 
0^ 



-*-6> 



_aj2 



-*-fi 



~o"tf 



+« 



3EZ2 



"OT? 



^ 



=*= 



3 



*=£ 



42- 



^ 



P? 



fl^ 



w 



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¥=* 



Lesson with two Quarter-notes slurred and two Quarter-notes detached or staccato. 

Allegro giusto. 

(0 '■ ■ 



* 



2 



^ 



p 



jffp^ 



? 



f 



-0- 



1 * * 



13. 



» 



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£ ### 



£### 



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WWW WW 



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mm$$ 



m 



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ftg&g 



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4*+ m +- • * i^^ ■*-*-*-*-■*-*-*-*- ^ 



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r r i I i f r 



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p | n 



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mum 



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www 




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i ' JJjJj 



i 



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/W ^%e« Mere & a dot over the note, it must be staccato and played with a doan stroke of the plectrum and without maki 
the tremolo. 

57429-86 



\ng 



24 



EXERCISES ON EIGHTH-NCTES. 
Three notes slurred and one staccato. 
The slurred notes to be tremolo. .The staccato note detached. 
Moderate 



14. 





ggti 



^ 






i 



P 



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^ 



* 



o 



fpw 



i^ 



rrs 



rrri 



-r *■ 



:wrz: 



£ 



Is 



gg Sl 



J?JlbJJJ3 




IP 



& 



mm 



^m 



l did* 



15. 



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fif* 



3=1* 



i 



^^ 



s 



Ff3 



m 



f 



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^s 



^^ 



# 



^ 



M 




I 



/TS 



T 4 



¥"¥" 



*H 



FS 



f*fl 



ppp§ 



♦ # 



j I ii 



±u± m 



o 



Two notes slurred and two detached. 



16. 






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f 



gPJSi 



PPPt 



JJlHhJaJ? 



^fff 




1 



fff 



£ 



^f 



a 



g 



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p^ 




^ 



ip 



pp 



ad 



ifWfi 



/o 



it 



o 



57180-88 



25 



psi 



SCALE IN E MINOR. 
Relative of G major. 

^ — 4r6 



M 



SXa 



% 



#&e 



3=E 



277 2 "5" *~& 



-xm 



n 



m 



m j UJJ i fH'ir iVffNJJiiii 



SIMPLE TRIPLE TIME. 

A dotted Half-note, or three Quarter-notes. 
(A dot after a note increases its value one half.) 



Moderate. 



ij'jTn 



p=s 



^ 



i 



i 



i if r 



17. 



§ ■ i 8 f ■ J» * 



^ 



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LESSON IN DOTTED NOTES. 



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67429-86 



30 



THE APPOGGIATURA. 



The appoggiatura is a small note placed before another, and usually depriving that note of half its time -value. 
It must be well accented and the principal note must be played Tremolo. 

"When the appoggiatura is placed before x dotted note, it takes a third and sometimes two-thirds from the time- 
value of that note according to the character of the melody. 

When the appoggiatura is crossed by a little dash: t» t it must be played rapidly, the finger striking the string 
sharply, then being withdrawn so as to allow a continuance of the tremolo on the principal note. 



19. 



Lesson On the Appoggiatura. 



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fi7429-8(i 



32 

SYNCOPATION. 

Syncopation is a suspension or alteration of accent— accented notes occuring in the unaccented part of a bar. 
The emphasis is placed upon the syncopated note. 

Examples of different kinds of Syncopation. 



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.*.74-20-Kfl 



89 



TRIPLETS. 



A Triplet consists of three notes grouped together and played in the usual time of two of the same value, 
In slow movements, triplets are generally performed tremolo, excepting those which have a particular accent. 



Lesson on Triplets. 



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5742 9-86 



37 



RECREATION V. 

SERENADE . 

The triplets in slow or moderate time may also be staccato. It depends upon the character of the piece. 
[See the following Recreation ) 

Schubert. 
Moderate 



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57428-86 



39 



Lesson In Quarter-notes and Eighth-notes. 



In order to know whether the notes must be played tremolo or staccato, we must take into account the 
movement of the piece and the character of the passage. 

The longer the notes, the more appropriate the tremolo; whilst, on the contrary, the shorter notes are bet- 
ter played staccato. 

It is necessary, to pay great attention to the accents placed over the notes, as they indicate the manner 
of execution. 



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57429-tftf 



40 



Lesson In detached Eighth-notes. 



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4f 



The Slide of the Plectrum on the Strings. 

Th9 SlidaV indicates that the slurred notes over which it is placed are to be played very smoothly. This is 
done by striking the first note and then allowing the plectrum to glide gently over the strings without re- 
striking them. It is possible to glide over two, three or four notes. 



EXAMPLES. 



by four notes. 



by two notes. 

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Exercise for the Slide on two notes. 



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(!) The Sotted note to he plsyed tremolo, and the short note an up stroke of the plectrum. 
iQbterro the si^n - for the momnent of the plectrum on the note.) 
'2) Slide the plectrum orer the three notes. 



574 *»->»» 



43 

Observation On playing the Quarter-note. 

In a preceding chapter we have said that the Quarter-note should always be played tremolo. But, as an 
exception, the quarter may also be played staccato in allegro movements, especially in Waltzes. 
(See the following Recreation.) 

RECREATION VI. 
Tempo di Valse. WALTZ. 

d) # 




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(t) Mike all the quarter notes staccato. 



*7429-8fl 



%% 



MANNER OF PLAYING THE MAZURKA. 



In the rhythm of the Mazurka, the Quarter-notes are played tremolo; this rhythm not being so lively as 
that of the Waltz. The Quarter-notes should be staccato. 



Tempo di Mazurka. 
ft 



RECREATION VII. 
MAZURKA. 



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(?) gf-uarmr itofei tten>o^>- Eighth »otn$ staccato. 



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oTi-ZU-Ht 



46 



SLURRED SIXTEENTH- NOTES. 



In rapid passages, the first of the slurred Sixteenth-notes is always played with a down-stroke of the plec- 
trum, and the second with the up-stroke. 

In order to play these rapidly and smoothly, either ascending or descending, in passing from one string to 
another, do not make three successive down strokes of the plectrum. It is better to make use of the Vb 
finger than to use the open strings. 



ascending. BAD. 

^^^a^TTA A A 1 



descending. 

AmN a JLa a a a 



EXAMPLE. 



GOOD. ^^- -" 



* 



Allegro, s A^l •#T^Au^\ 

i AuAu _«Fl » f l TPffPm Zr^ 




In passing from one string to another the Sixteenth-notes are played on the open strings when such 
a course seems reasonable and convenient. 



Allegro 



EXAMPLE. 







Detached Sixteenth- notes. 

When there is no slur over or under the Sixteenth- notes, they must always be detached by a down-stroke 
of the plectrum: however, in slow movements, the Sixteenths can be played tremolo or detached, according 
to the style of the passage. 



Example of Sixteenth-notes Tremolo. 



Largo 




T^ltrq^ji 



Moderate. 



Example of Sixteenth-notes Detached. 



J'- ' ffl ir utf ^ cridfrJflVBtfig gii 



h 



fr 



For the Examples of the above, see the following exercises and recreations. 



W. Those who imagine that they can replace the Mandolin method with that oj the Violin are in error- for the technique of 
the former instrument does not always adapt itself to that of the Violin. 

■)?429-Mi 



47 



Exercises and Recreations on Sixteenth-notes. 
With Obligatory strokes of the Plectrum. 



Moderato 

A u A A A 



EXERCISE 



A A A 



Q A A u A A A | a A A 



A u A 




£jir i tf cx-u 



Moderato 

# A u A A A 



EXERCISE: 




Tempo di Polka. 



a n? aua; ^j 



^^3 



RECREATION VIE. 
POLKA. 

A u A 



(2) 



m 



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W 6¥»tf a doxtn-atroke of the plectrum to play the small note, and pick t/te string 1 with the same finger to gire effect to the pi 
cipal note. 
(2) Slide the plectrum over the two slurred Sixteenth-notes. 

• 742»-8« 



48 



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Moderato. A 

ff AuAuAuAu ML M-' h 



EXERCISE. 



A * % AuAuAuAu #• f-' A , - . £-* , -=-, 

p r r rrrrrrr n r f j i, ^ ^ji L r r h rrrr m 










! imji ff Hum r i nr ;sl 



D.C. 

S74i»-8fl 



*3 



Tempo di Mazurka. 

±% A u A a ^ 



A A 



RECREATION IX. 
MENUET. 

A u A u 




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574 '29-88 



50 



Tempo di Minuetto 

A A A 



RECREATION X. 
MINUET. 




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( i) Tremolo the eighth-note. 



5742B-88 



51 



SCALE IN B MINOR. 

Relative of the key of D major. 



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574 2W-8 6 



52 



Allegro non troppo. 



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A *■ _ ^ T- 



EXERCISE. 

A A A A 



fe l JTT^ I J flB l J'J^ l f JJTJIJJ JJ| 



j£ 



i e^ j - mrr i r Bttr i i i u i| 1?ii iMiijjjjijjjiuri 



Moderate. 



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^tti r rJUtf t ri L ffl i Jir i ^ r / i ^ i j^ i ^ f 



Allegro giusto. 



RECREATION XL 
CONTRE-DANSE. 



h a * A u A J^ 

pi J Jj?3 



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57488-86 



53 



Allegro. 



RECREATION XII. 
CONTRE-DANSE. 



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Lesson on the Sixteenth-notes. 







^i"n Jlifu 1 1 I j li^T 



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574 29-8» 



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2™* finger to be 



kept down. 



l?t finger to be kept 



down. 



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51 



Observation on the Sixteenth-notes. 

In order to maintain perfect smoothness in the performance of Sixteenth- notes, it is necessary to observe, 
at the outset, that sometimes you must begin with the up-stroke of the plectrum, and sometimes with the 
down-stroke. Whan there is an even number of notes, begin with a down-stroke. 



A"A U A a 



EXAMPLE. 



^fl&r i rtf j frua 



When there is an uneven number of notes, begin with the up-stroke. 



EXAMPLE. 



m 



u 




U A 

0- 



^r i ?[rfrif-*i 



The isolated Sixteenth-note united to the Eighth by the rest f should be played with the down-stroke, be- 
cause it is an isolated note. The note of the second beat in the measure should be played with the down-stroke 
also. 



EXAMPLE. 




Lesson on the Preceding- Observations. 



Moderato. 



30. 




IIP^ 



g 



w 






SI 




5742 y-60 




67490-80 



59 



Exercises on Repeated Sixteenth notes. 
With different strokes of the Plectrum. 
i j A u ^ ^ simile \ 




k^ l L 



a fl - i gg tff i rftT^tff!M , i£fHrto i 



Ufe 



fflyitt i ayJmi^ l ^-l^ l ^ l ^ l ^Pi^a 



I 



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^■ ' ■ '' ^ ' u^ iiUUW^ 1 ^ 11 



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wi 



GH l^'il CH ji rtf li^l^l^niHriirjji 



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lV / ; i J|H^^%i f Wtr i fl4 #^^p 



(/; .ft tt'«i(W 3? ire// to s^waty Mi* anrf the following Exercise in different key?, 



57428-86 



60 



m 



Allegro. 

4 A u 



Lesson on Repeated notes. 

A U A . . 



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SCALE IN F# MINOR. 



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62 



Exercise on the Eighth -notes. 
"With different strokes of the Plectrum. 



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Two Eighth-notes Slurred, and Two Staccato. 

Sound the first note with the down-stroke of the plectrum and vibrate the string with the same finger; give 
a slight up-stroke of the plectrum for the second note without stopping the vibration of the string. 

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DOTTED NOTES. 

"We have indicated at page 27 (RECREATION III) the manner of playing dotted Eighth-notes. Here is another 
way of playing them. To produce this novel effect we must give a down-stroke of the plectrum on the dotted 
note, and an up-stroke for the short note; separating the two notes hy a rest. 



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65 



TRIPLETS IN LIVELY MOVEMENTS. 



To overcome the difficulty of this rhythm, which is contrary to the nature of the plectrum-stroke, it is 

necessary, when there is no accent on the notes and when there is no occasion to pass from one string to 

another, that the movement of the plectrum should be always the same; that is to say, that the first note 

jnust be sounded with the down-stroke of the plectrum; the second note with an up-stroke; and the third note 

with a down-stroke. (See the figns orer the notes in the following studies.) 

In adopting this movement of the plectrum an irregular accent is avoided. Though the accents ^=- are in- 
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(See the following studies in triplets ttith the carious strokes of the plectrum.) 



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67 

Id the following study the plectrum must he glided over all the slurivd notes in passing from one string 
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"EARLY MORN." 



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RECREATION XV. 

BERCEUSE. 

(Solo.* 



73 



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MERRY PRINCESS MARCH. 

(For two Mandolins.) 



Baker. 



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MAZURKA. 

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RECREATION XVHI. 

LIGHT CAVALRY MARCH. 

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RECREATION XIX. 
DANSE ECCOSSAIS. 
(For Two Mandolins.) 



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1?* Mandolin. 



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LA MODESTA. 

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HERMIONE MAZURKA. 

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57429 *• 



THE PHILHARMONIC 
ORCHESTRA FOLIO 



CONTENTS 

1. Gavotte celebre Padre G. Martini 

2. Moment Musical No. 3 Franz Schubert 

3. Capriccio in A Joseph Haydn 

4. Hunting Song Gustave Lazarus 

5. Gavotte and Musette Johann Sebastian Bach 

6. Largo from Xerxes George Frideric Handel 

7. Bourree in G minor Johann Sebastian Bach 

8. Intermezzo (L'Arlesienne Suite) Georges Bizet 

9. Turkish March Ludwig van Beethoven 

10. Minuet from Symphony in E\> Wolfgang A. Mozart 

11. Gavotte from Paris and Helen C. W. von Gluck 

12. Hungarian Dance, No. 5 Johannes Brahms 

13. Huniorescrae, Op. 10, No. 2 P. I. Tchaikovsky 

14. Ballet Music from Rosamunde Franz Schubert 



1. 1st Violin 

2. 2nd Violin 

3. 3rd Violin (substitute for Viola) 

4. Viola 

5. Violoncello , 

6. Double Bass 

7. Flute 

8. Oboe 

9. 1st Clarinet in Bb 

10. 2nd Clarinet in Bb 

11. Bassoon 

12. 1st Horn in F 

13. 2nd Horn in F 



INSTRUMENTATION 

14. 1st Alto (or Melophone) inEb 



15. 2nd Alto (or Melophone) inEb 

16. 1st Trumpet (or Cornet) in Bb 

17. 2nd Trumpet (or Cornet) in Bb 

18. Trombone (Bass clef) 

19. Trombone (or Baritone) (Treble clef) 

20. EbTuba 

21. Eb Alto Saxophone 

22. C Tenor (Melody) Saxophone 

23. Bb Tenor Saxophone 

24. Timpani 

25. Drums 

26. Piano 



PRICES 



Instrument Book* 
Piano Part 
Full Score 



each .SO 
1.00 
S.00 



All the numbers in this collection may be purchased separately in Small or Full Sets. For 
further information, complete list of Philharmonic Orchestra Series, prices and other details see inside 
cover pages II, III, IV. 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY 

THEODORE PRESSER CO., DISTRIBUTORS 
1712 CHESTNUT STREET ♦ PHILADELPHIA 

Copyright MCMXXXV 






MADE INU.S.A. 



Boston Public Library 
Central Library, Copley Square 

Division of 
Reference and Research Services 

Music Department 



The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- 
cates the date on or before which this 
book should be returned to the Library. 

Please do not remove cards from this 
pocket. 



JHHP 

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